Closed community and governmental self-insurance - Some communities prefer to create virtual insurance amongst themselves by other means than contractual risk transfer, which assigns explicit numerical values to risk. A number of religious groups, including the Amish and some Muslim groups, depend on support provided by their communities when disasters strike. The risk presented by any given person is assumed collectively by the community who all bear the cost of rebuilding lost property and supporting people whose needs are suddenly greater after a loss of some kind. In supportive communities where others can be trusted to follow community leaders, this tacit form of insurance can work. In this manner the community can even out the extreme differences in insurability that exist among its members. Some further justification is also provided by invoking the moral hazard of explicit insurance contracts.

In the United Kingdom, The Crown (which, for practical purposes, meant the civil service) did not insure property such as government buildings. If a government building was damaged, the cost of repair would be met from public funds because, in the long run, this was cheaper than paying insurance premiums. Since many UK government buildings have been sold to property companies, and rented back, this arrangement is now less common and may have disappeared altogether.

In the United States, the most prevalent form of self-insurance is governmental risk management pools. They are self-funded cooperatives, operating as carriers of coverage for the majority of governmental entities today, such as county governments, municipalities, and school districts. Rather than these entities independently self-insure and risk bankruptcy from a large judgment or catastrophic loss, such governmental entities form a risk pool. Such pools begin their operations by capitalization through member deposits or bond issuance. Coverage (such as general liability, auto liability, professional liability, workers compensation, and property) is offered by the pool to its members, similar to coverage offered by insurance companies.

However, self-insured pools offer members lower rates (due to not needing insurance brokers), increased benefits (such as loss prevention services) and subject matter expertise. Of approximately 91,000 distinct governmental entities operating in the United States, 75,000 are members of self-insured pools in various lines of coverage, forming approximately 500 pools. Although a relatively small corner of the insurance market, the annual contributions (self-insured premiums) to such pools have been estimated up to 17 billion dollars annually.[35].
A lawyer (also called an "advocate", "attorney", "barrister", "counsel", "counsellor", or "solicitor") is someone who practices law. A lawyer has earned a degree in law, and has a license to practice law in a particular area.

If people have any problem regarding the law, they can contact a lawyer for advice. A legal problem is referred to as a case. A person can hire a lawyer to start a case against someone else, or to help with a case that has been started against them. If the case goes to court, the lawyer will represent their client in court. The lawyer will use their knowledge of the law to convince the court that the client is on the right side of the argument. Lawyers also help people "settle out of court," which means that both sides of the argument agree to a punishment ahead of time so that they will not have to go to trial.

When a person is accused of a crime, the person has a defense lawyer to try to show they have not committed a crime. The lawyer arguing that they did do the crime is called the prosecutor.

Lawyers also prepare legal documents for their clients. Examples: buying or selling property or making a will (testament). Certain lawyers (called "commissioners of oaths" in England) can take legally binding witness statements which can be presented to the court.

Lawyers work in different settings. Some work by themselves, while some work in law firms. Some lawyers work for hospitals and private companies. Lawyers who work for private companies are usually called in-house counsel.

Lawyers generally charge a fee for the work that they do, but sometimes advice is offered freely, which is called "pro bono," meaning "for the public good." In many countries, if a person is accused of a crime and unable to pay for a lawyer, the government will pay a lawyer to represent them using tax money.
4-D printing is additive manufacturing that prints objects capable of transformation and, in some cases, self-assembly.

When a complex item is created using 3-D printing, the item is printed in parts that must be assembled. The purpose of 4-D printing is to reduce the total time needed to create a finished product by printing with materials that are capable of changing form or self-assembling with minimal human interaction. The "D" in 4-D printing stands for time -- more specifically, time saved.

The materials in a 4-D printed item are chosen to respond to a certain stimulus such as the transfer of kinetic energy from one medium to another. In such an example, the particles in printed material would start to bond together and change form when heat is introduced.  Another approach to 4-D printing involves programming physical and biological materials to change shape and change properties. 4-D printing is closely associated with nanotechnology, a branch of engineering that is also called molecular manufacturing.

While 4-D printing is still very much in the experimental phase, it has the potential to eventually save a lot more than just time by opening the door for new kinds of assemble-at-home products. Because unassembled items created with 4-D printing would be flatter and easier to ship in large quantities, they would also save on transportation costs. The recipient would simply introduce the needed stimulus and assemble the end product without requiring directions.

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